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There is near unanimity in each of the countries surveyed that it is important for women to have the same rights as men. Although most publics think men and women having equal rights is important, the strength of this sentiment varies across the countries surveyed. By comparison, roughly seven-in-ten in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia say it is very important for women to have the same rights as men in their country. The former Soviet nations of Lithuania, Ukraine and Russia are the least likely to believe gender equality is very important, though more than half in each country hold this view.
In former Eastern Bloc nations, at least four-in-ten in each country say women have more social and legal rights now than they had under communism. Roughly a quarter or more in Hungary, Slovakia, Ukraine, Poland and Bulgaria believe women have the same rights now as they had under communism. At least half in each surveyed country say a marriage where both the husband and wife have jobs and take care of the household is a more satisfying way of life than one where the husband provides and the wife takes care of the house and children.
Publics in Sweden, France and Spain are the most likely to believe an egalitarian marriage is satisfying. And roughly eight-in-ten in Germany, the Netherlands and Greece share this preference. Though preference for an egalitarian marriage is high in Central and Eastern Europe, roughly a quarter or more in Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Lithuania believe a traditional marriage would be more satisfying.
Since , preference for a marriage with more traditional gender roles has dropped substantially in most countries. This change over time is especially pronounced in Central and Eastern European countries, where over half in most countries expressed a preference for this type of marriage in For example, six-in-ten in Hungary preferred a traditional marriage in Similar patterns can be seen in Poland, Lithuania, Slovakia and Ukraine.
In most countries, adults ages 60 and older are more likely than those ages 18 to 34 to think a marriage in which the husband provides and the wife cares for the home and children is a satisfying way of life. Russia is the only country where the opposite pattern emerges. People with lower educational attainment in these countries are ificantly more likely than those with higher educational attainment to prefer a traditional marriage.
The view that men have more right to a job than women in tough economic times is a minority position in nearly all countries polled. Yet, notable shares of the public express the opinion in many Central and Eastern European countries, as well as Greece and Italy, where overall employment rates are relatively low.
Slovakia is the only country where a majority says men deserve preferential treatment when jobs are scarce. By comparison, fewer than a quarter in most Western European countries, as well as the U. Those who earn a lower income — less than the median for their country — are more likely than those with higher incomes to believe men have more right to a job than women in nearly every country surveyed. Similar income differences can be found in the U. A similar educational difference can be found in all countries except Sweden and Lithuania.
Compared with people with more education, those with less education are more likely to agree that men have more right to a job than women when jobs are scarce. The largest educational differences on this issue — more than 20 percentage points — are in Greece, Italy, the Czech Republic and Bulgaria. Overall, men and women tend to have similar opinions about gender equality in their society, but some gender differences emerge. In most of the Central and Eastern European countries surveyed, women are more likely than men to say that it is very important for women to have equal rights in their country.
The U. Notably, men and women generally agree on their preference for a marriage where both the husband and wife work and take care of the house and children. There are only a few countries, mostly in Western Europe, where women show a greater preference than men for an egalitarian marriage. Men and women also tend to be similarly opposed to giving men preferential treatment in employment when jobs are scarce.
Men are more likely than women to think men have more right to a job in only five countries: Bulgaria, Italy, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Lithuania. In times of uncertainty, good decisions demand good data. Please support our research with a financial contribution. About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research.
Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts. Newsletters Donate My . Research Topics. Gender equality since the fall of communism In former Eastern Bloc nations, at least four-in-ten in each country say women have more social and legal rights now than they had under communism. Many Europeans prefer egalitarian marriage At least half in each surveyed country say a marriage where both the husband and wife have jobs and take care of the household is a more satisfying way of life than one where the husband provides and the wife takes care of the house and children.
Gender and employment The view that men have more right to a job than women in tough economic times is a minority position in nearly all countries polled. Next: 8. Facts are more important than ever In times of uncertainty, good decisions demand good data. How people in Poland see key aspects of their democracy ahead of presidential election. Three decades after the fall of the Wall, Central and Eastern Europeans have few regrets about discarding communism, but they say progress has been uneven. Defining generations: Where Millennials end and Generation Z begins.
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